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Factors affecting the Performance of Steel Construction

Design is that the start line in any project, the mixing between the look and construction phases can lead to bigger crew productivity as construction concerns are taken under consideration at the design stage. Designers of steel structures ought to remember not solely with style method necessities for the structures however additionally with fabrication and erection strategies to make sure that a steel Structure design course in kerala  style will be safely, economically and dependably dead (fabricated, assembled and erected),these could verify whether or not a style is sensible and value economical. There are 2 separate phases of design: • Structural style • style for Erection. Fabrication is that method wont to manufacture steel structures parts which will, once assembled and joined, form a whole frame. The frame usually uses without delay out there normal sections that are purchased from the shaper or steel shareowner, along side such things as protecting coatings and bolts from alternative specialist suppliers. Fabrication involves handling of the stock members, cutting them to size, punching and drilling for connections, and getting ready the connections, in addition as search painting or finishes once needed. The principal activities at the fabrication works: Pre-assembly butt attachment Cutting and identification Drilling and edge preparation Assembly attachment Fitting of stiffeners Shear connectors Trial erection (rarely carried out) Coating application. There are several factors that has to be thought-about throughout the fabrication and have an excellent impact on up the crew productivity for the development of steel structure projects: • Accuracy • Handling and transportation • Shortage materials • broken or defective material • Delivery priority • Schedule time for fabrication. Steel shall be hold on and handled in an exceedingly manner that forestalls injury or distortion. And don’t store materials on the structure in an exceedingly manner which may cause distortion or injury to members of the structure. unreal steel shall be delivered in an exceedingly sequence which will allow economical and economical fabrication and erection and don’t adversely have an effect on productivity, wherever the delivery of materials on dates before beginning the period of erection appropriate time helps to boost the crew productivity wherever they’ll be reviewed and transferred to the erection at the appropriate time, The transfer of materials to the erection website before beginning the method of erection is one among the foremost necessary factors that have an effect on the up crew productivity. In developing the erection methodology totally different aspects of weather will have an effect on productivity, detail coming up with, and therefore the behavior of the structure. And cause hazards for health & safety. The character of the weather at the actual website throughout the amount of the year once erection is to require place must be appreciated, as will its significance for every operation. Safety within the erection steel structure has invariably been a significant issue. Where reliable records are there, steel construction is found to be one among the foremost dangerous on safety and health criteria. Though abundant improvement in steel construction safety has been achieved, the erection steel structure still continues to lag behind most alternative activities with relevance safety. The principal safety objectives once building steelwork are: • Safe access and dealing positions; • Safe lifting and inserting of steel components; • Stability and structural adequacy of the part-erected structure. Quality concerns would like special care. Particularly once the assembly (construction/installation) isn’t in situ, value of remedial works could go extraordinarily high if attention isn’t paid to quality assurance. Within the trendy construction market, quality may be a major performer in construction organization.

Corrosion of Steel

Corrosion of Steel

Reinforcing steel corrosion is one of the most serious deterioration mechanisms in reinforced concrete structures and is also an important issue that needs be considered when evaluating and rehabilitating RC structures. Fortunately, there are two self-defense mechanisms that can be employed to protect reinforcing steel against corrosion ,physical protection provided by the dense and relatively impermeable structure of concrete and chemical protection provided by the high alkalinity of the pore solution. The first mechanism involves concrete of sufficient depth and good impermeable quality. The second one is a thin oxide covering that forms around reinforcing steel bars due to the high alkalinity of pore solutions, which contain high concentrations of soluble calcium, sodium and potassium oxides, in freshly mixed concrete. However, the random distribution of pore spaces suggests that aggressive substances such as chloride, carbon dioxide, oxygen, moisture, etc. may penetrate through weak points in the concrete cover trigger the corrosion of reinforcing steel bars in concrete and finally induce cracking of the concrete. The aggressiveness of the environment is a very important factor to consider when examining concrete that shows signs of possible distress Generally, corrosion attack is initiated either due to the carbonation of the concrete or due to diffusion of the chloride ions to the reinforcing steel bar surface or both. On account of different aggressive mechanisms, the corrosion due to concrete carbonation is much more uniform than that caused by chloride attack and, hence, it is much less susceptible to local attack .On the other hand, corrosion of reinforcing steel structural course in kerala and the consequent cracking of concrete due to the ingress of chloride ions to the reinforcing steel bar surface is more than that due to carbonation of concrete. Not only will corrosion affect the load-carrying capacity of the reinforcing steel bar, but it may also impair its ductility, which presents a serious problem for the safety of old and monumental constructions in seismically active areas. A lot of research has been done to the corrosion of reinforcement in RC, dealing with various issues related to the configuration of corroded reinforcing steel bars, the load– displacement relationship, residual strength, ductility, etc. The effect of reinforcement corrosion on the residual strength has been of great interest. The ductility of reinforcing steel is normally represented by two parameters, the ratio between the yield and the total strengths and the elongation ratio. The elongation ratio is the average strain of a corroded steel bar in its gauge length. The elongation ratio associated with a shorter gauge length is much greater than that of a greater gauge length and the gauge length was taken as five times the initial diameter of the steel bar . The elongation ratio decreases with increased corrosion level, although the rates of decrease are different for steel bars corroded in simulated solutions and those corroded in concrete. For the steel bars corroded in simulated solutions the decrease rate is about 0.2, which represents a moderate loss of ductility as corrosion increases; for the steel bars corroded in concrete , the decrease rate is about 0.8, which represents a drastic loss in ductility as corrosion increases. The contribution of the highly localised peak strain does not provide a correspondingly large contribution to overall elongation (Cairns et al., 2005); therefore, the steel bars corroded in concrete present a lower elongation ratio than those corroded in simulated solutions for the same cross-sectional loss. The reinforcing steel bars subjected to local or pitting attack may suffer a significant loss of ductility. As far as the fracture pattern is concerned, fracture of the reinforcing steel bar usually occurred at pitted sections and usually happened with a less ductile fracture when the notch was wide and deep.

Steel

Steel is known as an alloy of iron and carbon, although there are different elements found in several steels. There are different grades of steel with different properties .It has to be purified and then several elements need to be added to strengthen it. The property of steel is that some alloys are reinforced by quench hardening. The Sandwich metal is then cooled by plunging it into a liquid. These alloys will so be ductile for fabrication and far stronger as a finished product. Steels are a unit loosely sorted by carbon content into low carbon steels , medium carbon steels and high carbon steels. These numbers could seem to be tiny, however they mirror the actual fact that carbon may be a tiny, light-weight component, whereas iron is a larger, heavier atom. Among metals, steels is comparatively significant and additionally deteriorate by Steel is known as an alloy of iron and carbon, although there are different elements found in several steels. There are different grades of steel with different properties .It has to be purified and then several elements need to be added to strengthen it. The property of steel is that some alloys are reinforced by quench hardening. The Sandwich metal is then cooled by plunging it into a liquid. These alloys will so be ductile for fabrication and far stronger as a finished product. Steels are a unit loosely sorted by carbon content into low carbon steels , medium carbon steels and high carbon steels. These numbers could seem to be tiny, however they mirror the actual fact that carbon may be a tiny, light-weight component, whereas iron is a larger, heavier atom. Among metals, steels is comparatively significant and additionally deteriorate by corrosion. If steel can work, it’ll most likely be the smallest amount high-ticket metal alternative which may contain far and away the most important tonnage duty of steel created, because it includes the structural steels of bridges and buildings. These steels typically have solely tiny amounts of different alloying parts. Low carbon steels are delicate steels and these steels is also surface treated to get the most effective of each worlds – a ductile, impact-resistant interior with a tough, abrasive-resistant surface. Common surface treatments for hardness contains carburizing, nitriding, and cyaniding. Low carbon steels might also be surface treated for corrosion resistance, using processes of electric, electroplating. Medium alloy steels is quench hardened, and are used to improve hardenability. To harden steel, its temperature should be modified to avoid the formation of softer equilibrium phases, and to provide the required robust section known as primary solid solution. steel structure design course in kerala.

The temperature gradients produce stresses that, within the worst case, will crack the half. The interior might not cool quickly enough to harden. The atoms of a metal area unit positioned in symmetrical geometrical arrays are known as crystal lattices. There are the high alloy steels, with about 5%–10% by weight consisting of alloying parts apart from carbon. Although high carbon steels are utilized in the littlest amounts and are known as tool steels. These steels are used for hammers, pick-axes, and cutting tools like knives and chisels. They are used at the very best temperatures. The tool steels are usually heat treated. There are 3 stages to the quench hardening of steels: heat treat, quench, and heat up . In the Quench Hardening method – Heat Treat the steel is at a extreme temperature to dissolve the alloying parts into an even, primary solid solution beginning section. The time needed depends totally on the scale of the half. In Quench the hardening (strengthening) happens here. Fast quenches promote hardening however risk cracking. Slower quenches forestall cracking, however might not sufficiently harden. The subsequent media are ordered from severe quench (rapid) to delicate quench .In the heat up (Temper) steel is simply too brittle to be serviceable. Tempering is maintaining an intermediate temperature between the initial answer temperature and also the quench temperature. The aim of tempering is to revive impact strength to the hardened half of the steel.

Steel and Seismic Design

Steel and Seismic Design

The different aspects of a seismic design has always been a concern when it comes to the designing of steel structure design course in kerala. A number of strategies are important to the design of structures that will behave adequately in strong earthquakes. The major aspects that are considered are continuity, adequate stiffness and strength, regularity, redundancy etc. Continuity. All of the pieces that comprise a structure must be connected to each other with sufficient strength that when the structure responds to shaking, the pieces don’t pull apart and the structure is able to respond as an integral unit. An important aspect of continuity is having a complete seismic load resisting system so that a force that is applied anywhere in the structure has a means of being transmitted through the structure and to the foundation. In addition to vertical frames, a complete seismic load resisting system must also include horizontal diaphragms to transmit inertial forces to the vertical frames. Stiffness and Strength. Structures must have sufficient stiffness so that the lateral deformations experienced during an earthquake do not result in instability and collapse. Structures must have sufficient lateral and vertical strength such that the forces induced by relatively frequent, low intensity earthquakes do not cause damage and such that rare, high-intensity earthquakes do not strain elements so far beyond their yield points that they lose strength. Regularity. A structure is said to be regular if its configuration is such that its pattern of lateral deformation during response to shaking is relatively uniform throughout its height, without bringing a lot of deformation in small areas of the structure. It is important to avoid excessive twisting of structures because it is difficult to predict the behavior of a structure that twists excessively. It also is important to avoid concentrations of deformations in structures because these concentrated deformations can become very large, leading to extreme local damage in the area of the concentration and a loss of vertical load. Redundancy is important because of the basic design strategy embodied in the building codes, which anticipates that some elements important to resisting lateral forces will be loaded beyond their elastic limits and will sustain damage. If a structure has only a few elements available to resist earthquake-induced forces, when these elements become damaged, the structure may lose its ability to resist further shaking. However, if a large number of seismic load resisting elements are present in a structure, and some become damaged, others may still be available to provide stability for the structure. Defined Yield Mechanisms. The most important strategy is to Design a predetermined yield mechanism. In this approach, which is often termed capacity design, the designer must decide which elements of the structure are going to yield under strong earthquake excitation. In order to sustain yielding without undesirable strength loss elements are detailed . At the same time, all of the other elements of the structure, such as gravity load-carrying beams, columns and their connections, are proportioned so that they are strong enough to withstand the maximum forces and deformations that can be delivered to them by an earthquake, once the intended yield mechanism has been engaged. In essence, the members that are designed to yield act as structural “fuses” and protect other elements of the structure from excessive force. This strategy ensures that critical members important to the vertical stability of the structure and its ability to carry gravity loads are not compromised.

Steel Industry

Steel is manufactured as a product with no major trade barriers across national boundaries to be seen currently. Steel production in India has increased by a compounded annual growth rate and steel continues to have a stronghold in traditional sectors such as construction, housing and ground transportation. Special steels are increasingly used in engineering industries such as power generation, petrochemicals and fertilizers growth in India is projected to be higher than the world average, as the per capita consumption of steel in India. India occupies a central position on the global steel map. The growth of the steel industry worldwide through mergers and acquisitions has already thrown up several significant concerns. The domestic steel industry has become market oriented and integrated with the global steel industry. The private players could expand their operations and bring in new cost effective technologies to improve competitiveness not only in the domestic but also in the global market. Private sectors contribution to the total output has thus been increasing in India. Development of the private sector has caused a tremendous growth in all aspects of steel industry that is capacity, production, export and imports.

The steel industry is showing promising future growth as major players in the industry have announced their plans for significant investments in expanding their capacities. Rapid development of the steel industry with active participation of private sector and integration of India steel industry with the global steel industry has also induced the government to come up with a National Steel Policy in 2005. The pre-reform steel market in India was controlled in all relevant areas. Competition was restricted in this market that had no real role to play in the growth of the individual companies or their performance and the allocative efficiency of investible resources. The prices fixed by the government were more on political consideration and not strictly on the basis of costs of production or markets demand and supply balance. There are no facts to establish that there is formal or ‘written down’ agreements on prices among the major players. There must be difference between situations such as (i) price rise necessitated by factors external to the industry e.g. increase in capital cost, rise in border steel prices and hence erosion of profitability and (ii) expectation of demand-supply gap providing an opportunity to increase profit Intervention by the government on matters of pricing steel long products also in the recent times has also pointed to the acceptance of the government that the major steel producers have substantial value in the market and act according to the substantial net impact on the market to move the trends in the desired direction. Steel sector was the first to be liberalized and there are enough players; though the industry is concentrated in some segments. However, this in no way suggests that the sector should be subject to regulation, which also includes the government. Regulations must be restricted to market failures like natural monopolies, externalities and asymmetric information between buyers and sellers. The government’s current approach to informally control steel prices is based on the assumption that a few steel detailing course in kochi producers have sufficient command over the market and that they can be discussed to uniformly cut prices to whatever objective to fulfill.

Residual stresses in Steel sections

Residual stresses in Steel sections

The stresses remaining in unloaded steel sections are of importance in column style as they lead to reduction of flexural stiffness of the columns and consequently during a lower buckling strength .Although residual stresses area unit self-equilibrating, the effective moment of inertia of the cross section are going to be modified once elements of the section, that have residual compressive stresses, area unit yielded. It is noticed that the magnitude of most residual stresses in hot-rolled sections of a moderate steel strength is about up to 30 % of the yield strength and area unit uniformly distributed across the thickness of the plate. A longitudinal residual stress gradients will if truth be told be found in cold-formed HSS tubes. One gradient is thought because the perimeter (membrane) residual stress and is developed parallel to the tube wall. The opposite gradient is thought because a thorough thickness residual stress is developed across the tube wall face and on the cross sectional perimeter. The most dominant parameter that affects the tangent modulus and supreme strength of HSS column is the residual stress gradient. The magnitude of this kind of residual stresses varies from twenty five to 70 % of the fabric yield strength.

Retrofit of existing structures is usually required once live masses increase on the far side of those structures that were originally designed. it may also be needed due to the associate degree of inadequate style, damage, fatigue cracking, or deterioration like corrosion. The subsequent steps for upgrading steel bridges are:

1. Fastening cowl plates to the crucial rim areas of the bridge floor beams.

2. Once rim material is supplementary, the present bolting system could become light. This could be corrected by adding additional bolts or subbing larger bolts.

3. Bearing stiffeners is also strengthened by bolting or fastening angles or by fastening plates.

4. Intermediate stiffeners can also be supplementary by bolting or fastening plates.

5. If the net wasn’t originally spliced to resist moment, it’s going to be spliced by adding facet plates.

6. Tension truss members are often strengthened by the addition of adjustable bars or cowl plates. cowl plates should, however, be welded to the gusset plates.

7. Compression truss may be brought into effect by adding cowl plates, either to convert unsymmetrical cross sections or to cut back the width-to-thickness magnitude relation of the plates that comprise the cross section, so as to avoid native bucking and totally utilize their yield strength.

The usually mentioned ways of retrofitting steel bridges (and structures) generally involve bolting or fastening further steel plates to the structure. These ways, however, have variety of constructability and sturdiness drawbacks. In several cases, fastening isn’t a fascinating answer because of fatigue issues related to weld defects. On the opposite hand, mechanical (bolted) connections that have higher fatigue life, area unit time intense and expensive. Drilling holes for fast connections conjointly ends up in a cross sectional loss further because the introduction of stress raisers. In addition, structural steel designing courses in kerala plates need work instrumentality and will add hefty dead masses to the structure that reduces their strengthening effectiveness. The supplementary steel plates also are prone to corrosion that may lead to a rise in future maintenance prices.

There is a requirement for adopting sturdy materials and cost-efficient retrofit techniques to beat a number of the drawbacks of standard techniques explicit earlier. One among the potential solutions is to use high performance non-metallic materials like FRPs. In general, FRP materials give superior strength-to-weight ratios for retrofit of structures. FRP rigid plates and versatile sheets area unit obtainable and may simply be applied to the surface. FRP versatile sheets especially supply a singular advantage of having the ability to adapt to complicated and hook like surfaces.

Application of Chrome steel

Austenitic unblemished steels have wonderful corrosion resistance, additionally, even thick, hot-rolled primary solid solution chrome steel plates afford wonderful toughness and weldability. As a result of these characteristics, they’re widely used as steel materials for welded structures, in the main in industrial machines and plants. within the design and engineering fields too, there’s little question that SUS304—the commonest primary solid solution unsullied steel—will still be the foremost probably candidate for the applying of unsullied steels, visible of the very fact that SUS304 contains a smart balance of properties, available in varied forms, and has already found several applications. Once properly used, it is free from conspicuous erosion for an extended time and displays better performance as a steel material. In distinction, since SUS304 contains a substantial proportion of nickel (a rare metal), it’s rather more costly than general structural steels and structural steels that are subjected to corrosion-protective treatment (e.g., plated steels). Moreover, the worth of SUS304 is at risk of fluctuations within the prices of raw materials. even if increasing importance is hooked up to LCC, the higher than value structure for SUS304 is associate degree impediment to increasing its application below gift domestic conditions that square measure loath to any increase in initial work price. In distinction, ferritic chrome steel sheet (cold-rolled sheet), that doesn’t contain nickel, has seen its applications in vehicles and residential appliances, etc., speedily dilated. Formerly, hot-rolled ferritic chrome steel detailing course in kochi was thought-about unsuitable as a steel material as a result of its inferior toughness and weldability. The technological progress has helped in reducing impurities, etc., in steel producing and application/forming technology, like fastening, hot-rolled ferritic chrome steel containing less than regarding 11 November metal currently has enough properties needed of structural steels, and thence will be utilized in several applications. The characteristics and future prospects of a hot-rolled ferritic chrome steel developed for discipline structure—are as follows. Carbon and element impurities square measure reduced and also the microstructures of the merchandise and heat-affected zones square measure rendered finer. The deformation characteristic is analogous thereto of general structural steels, because the fixed strength utilized in structural style, identical worth as that of SS400 steel for structural use will be adopted. The matter of inferior toughness of welded joints and inferior fastening workability has been eliminated that has been a drawback of ferritic chrome steel. Since the steel contains a relatively tiny proportion of metal, it’s subject to erosion corrosion in outside environments containing fine particles of ocean salt. However, in standard outside environments, the speed of corrosion growth is very low and thence enough structural sturdiness will be secured for prolongedstruction. This steel has been approved by the minister as fixed below Article thirty seven of the Building Law, in order that it will be utilized in general buildings. Additionally, the steel could be a high-durability steel that meets the best level of sophistication three (durability: regarding a hundred years) within the classification of measures against deterioration as outlined within the Housing Quality Promotion Act. The steel is predicted to search out applications within the design and engineering fields, not solely as a fabric for the body of long-lived housing, however conjointly as a replacement sort of structural chrome steel that helps scale back the load of corrosion-protective treatment applied throughout work or maintenance.

Prefabrication

Prefabricated construction could be a new technique and is fascinating for big scale housing programmes. The main aim of prefabrication are :

1) To impact economy in value

2) To boost in quality because the elements is factory-made below controlled conditions.

3) To hurry up construction since no hardening is critical.

4) To use domestically on the market materials with needed characteristics.

5) To use the materials that possess their innate characteristics like lightweight weight,easy workability, thermal insulation and combustibility etc.

Need for Pre fabrication

1. Ready-made structures square measure used for sites that aren’t appropriate for traditional

construction technique like cragged region and additionally once traditional construction

materials aren’t simply offered.

2. PFS facilities may be created at close to a site as is finished to form concrete blocks

used in plane of standard knick.

3. Structures used repeatedly might be standardized .

Advantages:

  • Readymade elements are used
  • Shuttering and staging is greatly reduced.
  • Construction time is reduced and buildings ar completed sooner permitting on
  • Earlier come back of the capital invested with.
  • On-site construction and congestion is reduced.
  • Internal control is easier during a plant mechanical system setting than a construction and Site setting.
  • Manufacture is placed wherever expert labour, power materials house and
  • Overheads are lower.
  • Time spent in weather or dangerous environments at the development web site is minimised
  • Materials for staging is keep partially or fully and used
  • Accessibility of precise structure and expect acquisition.
  • The Time Period is reduced.
  • Fewer enlargement joints are needed.
  • Interruptions in connecting is omitted.
  • Work is completed with a higher technology.
  • Less employees are required.

DISADVANTAGES

  • Careful handling of ready-made elements like concrete panels or steel and
  • glass panels is needed.
  • Attention must be paid to the strength and corrosion-resistance of the change of integrity of
  • prefabricated sections to avoid failure of the joint
  • Equally leaks will generate at joints in ready-made elements.
  • Transportation prices could also be higher for voluminous ready-made sections than for
  • the materials of that they’re created which might usually be packed additional with efficiency.
  • Giant ready-made structures need heavy-duty cranes measurement and handling to position in position.
  • Giant teams of buildings from identical style of ready-made components tend to
  • look drab and monotonous.
  • Native Jobs area very less

Prefabricated building parts are utilized for buildings that are factory-made off

site and shipped later to assemble at the ultimate location a number of the unremarkably used

prefabricated building. The materials employed in the ready-made parts area several.

The modern trend is to use concrete steel, treated wood, metal cellular concrete,

light weight concrete, ceramic product etc. whereas selecting the materials for

prefabrication the subsequent special characteristics area unit to be thought-about.

  • light-weight
  • Thermal insulation property
  • simple workability
  • sturdiness altogether climatic conditions
  • Non combustibility
  • Economy in price
  • Sound insulation

In the olden days building a house was by the use the bricks, timber, cement, sand, steel and construction mixture etc and to construct the house on site from these materials. In ready-made construction solely the foundations are created during this method. While sections of walls floors and roof ar ready-made structures with windows and door frame enclosed and transported to the positioning upraised in to position by a crane and stewed along. tekla structural steel designing courses in kochi

Developments in the Steel Market

Developments in the Steel Market

Steel is usually used by the industrial sector and the demand for steel often leads the cycle in industrial production. The demand for steel grew only during the year of 2016, In the initial 10 months of 2016, the monthly consumption indicator for the major steel-consuming economies increased by approximately 1.9% There is an improvement in the market and demand for steel is expected to increase this year and possibly in the coming few years, according to the market analysts. This shows expectations of expansion of fiscal policy by the new US Administration, including corporate and personal tax cuts and actions to raise steel-intensive infrastructure investment. Major energy project are also being expedited, and the recent revival of two major oil pipeline projects would add demand for steel tubular goods. Canada’s recent approval of energy pipeline projects will also support demand and production of the country’s steel sector going forward.

In India steel demand has increased in a favorable manner being nearly double over the past decade or so. Steel demand has increased nearly 5% per annum in the last few years, supported by the infrastructure and a series of consumption and investment-boosting reforms, including the “Make in India” initiative which has led to increased FDI. In the recent months the demand for steel may have been effected due to the cash shortage associated with the move to demonetize certain currency notes, but strong GDP growth in the fourth quarter of 2016 suggests that the effects may have been more muted than expected. Over the longer term, steel usage will continue to grow to be a favorable one in India, with per capita consumption converging towards higher world average levels . Within Asia, demand growth has been fastest in economies located in Southeast Asia. A report that was released by the South East Asian Iron and Steel detailing Institutes in March 2017, shows that ASEAN steel demand expanded by almost 13% in 2016, rising to a level of 78 million tonnes. Most economies in the region have posted a double-digit steel demand growth, but Vietnam had the highest growth at 20%. That country’s steel association expects significant growth in steel production over the long term, as local producers try to meet steel demand for infrastructure and to support economic development more broadly. Indeed, the country has one of the fastest growth rates in Asia (capacity has nearly doubled in the last four years).

The steel demand developments have been affected in Japan, that reflects a sluggish investment in industrial, electrical and other machinery. Following a decline of 8% in 2015, apparent steel demand has remained stable in 2016, with steel orders up in the construction sectors (particularly civil engineering) and industrial machinery and equipment’s. The output from the industries has also started to recovering in early 2017, and steel demand is expected to recover in line with improved economic prospects. In Ukraine, the mining and steel industry has undergone considerable disruptions as a result of the conflict. The economy of different country having started to recover from the deep recession, and production from industries having shown signs of recovery in late 2016 and early 2017, steel market conditions should improve somewhat going forward.

Concrete

Concrete

Concrete does not burn – it cannot be ‘set on fire’ unlike most other materials in a building and it does not emit any toxic fumes when affected by fire. It will also not produce smoke or drip molten particles, unlike many plastics and metals. Designing with a non-combustible material results in a structure needing simpler fire detailing and therefore having quicker construction programmers. The outcome of inadequate fire details, poor workmanship and modifications during occupation causing a fire risk are reduced when homes have a non-combustible structure.

Much of design for fire safety is concerned with ensuring that people can escape from the building or structure, fire fighters are protected and the fire cannot spread to other properties or areas. Current building regulations for England and Wales are written with these three aims and there is no requirement for protection of property or to minimize damage beyond this. Clients and project teams may choose to go beyond minimum requirements and choose to provide a higher level of protection against the hazards of fire either to further reduce the risks addressed by the building regulations or to protect property.

In the majority of applications, concrete can be described as virtually ‘fireproof’. The materials when chemically combined within concrete, form a material that is important for fire safety design, and has relatively low thermal conductivity. This low conductivity means that the effect of fire is limited to the surface zones of the concrete with the middle of the element often unaffected. This also gives concrete excellent fire separation performance.

According to Government statistics [2] 60% of total household growth in England up to 2033 will come from households of age 65 or over. Designing beyond regulation, to protect an ageing population including vulnerable occupants, as well as occupants who are very young or with mobility limiting conditions, and therefore may need more time to escape a fire, are more reasons to choose a non-combustible material for structures. The materials used in the buildings can be classified according to the reaction to fire and resistance to fire This will determine whether a material can be used and when additional fire protection needs to be applied to it. EN 13501-1 classifies materials into seven grades (A1, A2, B, C, D, E and F).

The highest possible designation is A1 (non-combustible materials). The UK also has a National classification system, which has ‘non-combustible’, ‘limited combustibility’, Class 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 (with the lower number indicating lower combustibility, smoke emission or flame droplets).Modern concrete and masonry are classed as A1 in the European system and ‘non-combustible’ in the National system, and do not need any further testing nor additional fire treatments. Designers have a responsibility to consider fire as a real possibility that can affect people’s lives and livelihoods. Choosing non-combustible materials, such as concrete and masonry, for the main structure designing course in kerala of a building, provides an excellent starting point for achieving a safer built environment for us all.

A new method called Hybrid construction integrates all concrete to make best advantage of their different inherent qualities. The accuracy, speed and high-quality finish of precast components can be combined with the economy and flexibility of cast in-situ concrete.

Hybrid concrete construction produces simple, buildable and competitive structures. The contractor is benefited from increased component manufacture, safe and faster construction and consistent performance.