Concrete does not burn – it cannot be ‘set on fire’ unlike most other materials in a building and it does not emit any toxic fumes when affected by fire. It will also not produce smoke or drip molten particles, unlike many plastics and metals. Designing with a non-combustible material results in a structure needing simpler fire detailing and therefore having quicker construction programmers. The outcome of inadequate fire details, poor workmanship and modifications during occupation causing a fire risk are reduced when homes have a non-combustible structure.
Much of design for fire safety is concerned with ensuring that people can escape from the building or structure, fire fighters are protected and the fire cannot spread to other properties or areas. Current building regulations for England and Wales are written with these three aims and there is no requirement for protection of property or to minimize damage beyond this. Clients and project teams may choose to go beyond minimum requirements and choose to provide a higher level of protection against the hazards of fire either to further reduce the risks addressed by the building regulations or to protect property.
In the majority of applications, concrete can be described as virtually ‘fireproof’. The materials when chemically combined within concrete, form a material that is important for fire safety design, and has relatively low thermal conductivity. This low conductivity means that the effect of fire is limited to the surface zones of the concrete with the middle of the element often unaffected. This also gives concrete excellent fire separation performance.
According to Government statistics  60% of total household growth in England up to 2033 will come from households of age 65 or over. Designing beyond regulation, to protect an ageing population including vulnerable occupants, as well as occupants who are very young or with mobility limiting conditions, and therefore may need more time to escape a fire, are more reasons to choose a non-combustible material for structures. The materials used in the buildings can be classified according to the reaction to fire and resistance to fire This will determine whether a material can be used and when additional fire protection needs to be applied to it. EN 13501-1 classifies materials into seven grades (A1, A2, B, C, D, E and F).
The highest possible designation is A1 (non-combustible materials). The UK also has a National classification system, which has ‘non-combustible’, ‘limited combustibility’, Class 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 (with the lower number indicating lower combustibility, smoke emission or flame droplets).Modern concrete and masonry are classed as A1 in the European system and ‘non-combustible’ in the National system, and do not need any further testing nor additional fire treatments. Designers have a responsibility to consider fire as a real possibility that can affect people’s lives and livelihoods. Choosing non-combustible materials, such as concrete and masonry, for the main structure designing course in kerala of a building, provides an excellent starting point for achieving a safer built environment for us all.
A new method called Hybrid construction integrates all concrete to make best advantage of their different inherent qualities. The accuracy, speed and high-quality finish of precast components can be combined with the economy and flexibility of cast in-situ concrete.
Hybrid concrete construction produces simple, buildable and competitive structures. The contractor is benefited from increased component manufacture, safe and faster construction and consistent performance.